Raspberry Pi and Arduino are very standardized boards amid students and professionals. Frequently, beginners get confused in choosing the best board, like which board will be suitable for the project, and which board will be easier for learning. Whereas well-experienced professional know the exact difference and also know the purpose of each board. Here, you will get to know the difference between Arduino and Raspberry pi, thereby you will not get confused.
Arduino was developed as a tool for the students at IDDI (Interaction Design Institute Ivrea) in the year 2005. Initially, students were utilizing BASIC Stamp MC (micro controller) for their project use, which had low memory and also was very expensive. So, in order to reduce the cost and add more flexibility, Arduino was created for writing codes. Ever since, several Arduino models were developed. But Arduino Uno remained as a standard board.
Raspberry Pi is basically a fully-functional computer, SOC (system on chip) device that runs on Linux OS, named Rasbian. Moreover, Rasbian is considered as official operating system for Raspberry pi. Even 3rd party operating systems such as Ubuntu, Android OS, Firefox operating system and RISC OS can also be installed on Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi has processor, graphic drivers, audio output, USB ports as well as memory similarly like computers. This was invented in 2012 at a price range of 35$. Eight years later, more than 30 million boards were sold, and Raspberry Pi became more dominant.
Actually, Raspberry Pi and Arduino are quite different. Many students are under confusion either to choose Arduino or Raspberry Pi. Now, let us see the difference between them.
When considering clock speed, Raspberry Pi performs 40x faster than Arduino. Also, Raspberry Pi has 128k times larger RAM than Arduino. Since, Raspberry Pi is a computer and it can run Linux OS, it is more powerful as it can perform multi-tasking, it can also support 2 USB ports at a time and can wirelessly connect to internet. Shortly, Raspberry Pi is powerful enough for functioning as PC.
From this you might think that Raspberry Pi completely outperforms Arduino. It is true only in the case of software applications. But, when considering hardware projects, Arduino shines more. As mentioned earlier, Raspberry Pi can do multitasking, for instance, I have Raspberry Pi, at the same time, it can serve as VPN server as well as print server. On other side, Arduino is very simple, but difficult to damage or break, and it also has many learning resources. The setup of Raspberry Pi can easily be damaged, if it was not properly unplugged. Whereas, we can leave the Arduino plugged in for much longer period, and also we can just unplug the Arduino when we aren’t using. Therefore, for this reason, many people are suggesting Arduino for beginners.
Here are some factors to be considered, so that you can get a clear point in choosing Raspberry Pi or Arduino,
Arduino’s cost differs from few dollars for clone-board, and the official board costs around 100 dollars. Further, the components for Arduino such as microcontrollers costs less than 2 dollars and provides adequate power to the hardware projects. Moreover, the clone boards of Arduino are available at a much cheaper cost, at the same time offering relatively similar compatibilities, compared to official Arduino boards. When considering Pi, the most inexpensive Raspberry Pi is Zero W that is available for just 10 dollars and offers an entire Linux computer that has Bluetooth and Wi-Fi access. By utilizing this Raspberry Pi Zero W, we can create many low budget IOT projects. Pi 4 8GB is costly Raspberry Pi, and it is available at a price range of 75 dollars, but we have to purchase more accessories as well as the HAT boards. So, when considering price factor, Arduino wins.
When considering power consumption, Raspberry Pi 4 eats more power. In Raspberry Pi, there is an USB-C connector as well as a power supplying unit, which provides 3A to the Pi itself and the connected devices. Further, the Raspberry Pi can run at the range of 15W. On the other hand, Ardiuno Uno pulls 500mA (maximum) through USB. Thus, Arduino Uno clearly consumes less power.
The Raspberry Pi and Arduino have their own third party as well as first party common accessories. Further, the add-ons for Raspberry Pi are: mini HAT (Hardware Attached on Top) as well as HATs that can connect to the general purpose input and output pins. Moreover, the add-ons for Ardunio boards are known as shields, also theya are equivalent to the HATs. The similarities between the boards are, they use the electronic components like sensors, resistors as well as LEDs. Arduino can also utilize several components, and it has standard analog inputs. Even though both the boards have add-ons, the accessories for Raspberry Pi have more capabilities than the accessories for Arduino. Thus, Raspberry Pi wins.
Raspberry Pi Raspberry Pi is basically a fully-functional computer, which can operate in LINUX OS. Further, when Raspberry Pi is connected to monitor, the mouse and keyboard offers us an experience similar to PC. Since Raspberry Pi can run LINUX, it also has the access to several programming languages such as C, Ruby and Node-RED. On other hand, In Arduino, the choices are limited. Also, it cannot perform as fully fledged PC. So when considering the programming language support, Raspberry Pi wins.
When considering performance comparison, Raspberry Pi is powered by ARM CPU which has a frequency of 1.5GHz, whereas on Arduino is powered by microcontrollers and has a frequency that is less than 100MHz. So, Raspberry Pi is the clear winner in terms of performance.
GPIO (general purpose input output) pins are the connections are utilized for interacting. Further, the GPIO pins are generally two-way communication, where they can be outputs, inputs and utilize the communication protocols. There are 40 pins in Raspberry Pi, where the pins are the mixture of PWM, digital as well as special protocols like UART, SPI and 12C. On the other side, Arduino Uno has less general purpose input output pins, whereas the Arduino MEGA consists of several pins. Additionally, Arduino has analog pins for communicating data. Thus, when considering GPIO, the clear winner is Arduino, because we can add more pins with clone boards.
As previously mentioned, Raspberry Pi Raspberry Pi is fully-functional computer that can be utilized for daily activities. Also, the Raspberry Pi can perform any project, for instance it can perform the tasks from the scratch (LED flashing) to extreme level projects (Robotics and Machine Learning). Further, the Raspberry Pi can perform anything that Arduino performs, however, it needs support from add-ons and Hats. When considering Arduino, it is single-task board, which can run only one program at one time. Thus, in terms of functionalities, Raspberry Pi is more versatile and it is the winner.
With the help of Arduino, it is focussed towards coding that helps for communicating with board. However Arduino performs one code at one time, it does its best. On other side, when considering Raspberry Pi Course , it is considered as favourite tool for education, since this works with various programming languages, which can also be utilized as research tool. Thus, Raspberry Pi again dominates with its versatility.
Finally, in our EES (Elysium Embedded School) we suggest that, Even though they both are different, but stull there are certain similarities. Arduino is a microcontroller board, whereas Raspberry Pi is considered as minicomputer. Therefore, Arduino is a portion of Raspberry Pi. To make it simpler, Raspberry Pi will perform great when it comes to software applications, and Arduino is a great performer when it comes to hardware projects.